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2022-2023 Graduate Bulletin

College of Music

Graduate

Dean: Todd Queen; Associate Deans: William Frederickson, Gregory Jones, Michael Thrasher

The graduate program of the College of Music is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the country. Accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music since 1930, it has a long and illustrious history of graduating outstanding performers, composers, scholars, administrators, educators, and therapists.

Graduate Degree Programs Offered

The following degrees are offered through the College of Music: the Master of Music (MM) degree in accompanying, choral conducting, composition, instrumental conducting, jazz studies, musicology (both historical musicology and ethnomusicology), music theory, music therapy, opera, performance, and piano pedagogy; the Master of Music Education (MME) degree; the Master of Arts (MA) degree; the Master of Arts (MA) degree in arts administration; the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in music education; the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in music (musicology and music theory); and the Doctor of Music (DM) degree in composition or in performance (bassoon, clarinet, collaborative piano, double bass, flute, guitar, horn, oboe, organ, percussion, piano, saxophone, trombone, trumpet, tuba, viola, violin, violoncello, and voice). For more detailed information about these degree programs, consult the graduate studies office in the College of Music. All students working toward master's and doctoral degrees in music register directly in the College of Music.

Specialized Studies Programs

In addition to its degree programs, the College of Music offers a number of specialized studies programs that provide an additional area of emphasis for graduate students. These include specialized studies programs in arts administration (doctoral students only), college teaching (doctoral students only), early music, jazz studies, music leadership, music of the Americas, organ performance, pedagogy of music theory, piano pedagogy, sacred music, and special music education. Further information about admission to, and special requirements of, these programs is available from the graduate studies office.

Music Facilities

The College of Music enjoys excellent teaching, research, and performance facilities. The two College of Music buildings are located on Copeland Street on the east side of the campus. The Kuersteiner Building, completed in 1948, is a four-story structure connected to the Wiley L. Housewright Music Building, which was completed in Spring 1979. The College of Music also occupies a number of offices in the Longmire Building and Kellogg Building. These buildings house the administrative offices; teaching studios; classrooms; band, orchestra, choral, opera, and ensemble rehearsal halls; music education and music therapy research laboratories; electronic music studios; ethnomusicology studios; early music studios; concert and recital halls; the Warren D. Allen Music Library; the Center for Music Research; and 130 practice rooms. All music facilities are structurally designed for maximum effectiveness.

Concert Facilities

The Opperman Music Hall, a 430-seat recital hall located in the Kuersteiner Building, is used for faculty and student recitals, concerts, and lectures. The Ernst von Dohnányi Recital Hall, located in the Housewright Music Building, is a 218-seat recital and lecture facility, while the 125-seat Lindsay Recital Hall, located in the Kuersteiner Building, is also used for recitals and lectures. The Longmire Recital Hall in the Longmire Building is a 140-seat facility used for recitals and lectures. Outdoor performances are scheduled during the Fall and Spring in the Owen F. Sellers Music Amphitheatre, while Ruby Diamond Concert Hall provides an impressive large concert environment for opera and major concert productions.

Music Library

The Warren D. Allen Music Library serves the students and faculty of the College of Music, as well as many users from other areas of the University. One of the major music libraries of the southeastern United States, the library provides a pleasant setting conducive to the efficient utilization of the extensive collection of over 200,000 scores, sound recordings, videos, books, periodicals, and microforms. Housed in 18,000 square feet of space with comfortable furnishings and excellent sound equipment, the music library provides students with impressive resources and surroundings for the pursuit of their studies. A librarian and other library staff are on duty to assist students and faculty in their use of the library.

Opera Shops

Built in 1977–78, the Opera Scene Shop provides 6,000 square feet of construction space with some storage area. The building features a drafting office, elevated grid area for constructing wagons and assembling scenic flats or drops, complete hand and table tools, and a wooden "stage" area for painting drops. An opera production is built there each semester, as well as sets for opera scenes and opera majors' projects.

The Opera Costume Shop is located in the Kellogg Building. Costumes are constructed or alterations are made on rental costumes each semester. In addition, costumes are constructed for various opera workshop scene programs.

Organs

A 1975, thirty-four-stop Holtkamp tracker (mechanical action) organ in Opperman Music Hall is used for recitals, concerts, and lessons. Practice organs include tracker and electric action instruments by Holtkamp and Wicks. Two portable continuo organs are available for performances requiring small instruments: a 1976 four-stop Holtkamp; and a 2003, three-stop Bennett and Giuttari with transposing keyboard. On permanent loan from the College to St. John's Episcopal Church, Tallahassee, a restored English chamber organ built by Hill and Davison in 1837–38, is available in the church's Carter Chapel. Fine organs by Taylor & Boody, C. B. Fisk, and Casavant are available through longstanding arrangements with downtown churches within easy walking distance of the College. Two small organs from Juget-Sinclair Organbuilders, Montreal, were delivered in late 2013: a four-stop continuo organ with transposing keyboard for use by the Choral Department and a four-stop practice organ to be added to the organ practice room suite.

Assistantships

Graduate assistantships are available in most areas of study in the College of Music. Graduate assistants receive an annual stipend based upon the service rendered, the nature of the service, and the qualifications of the student. Graduate assistants also receive a waiver of both in- and out-of-state tuition. Students with assistantships will still need to pay some per-semester and some per-credit fees.

Application Requirements

Applicants for graduate music degree programs will be admitted after careful consideration of their credentials. A bachelor's or master's degree in music from an accredited institution is generally considered a prerequisite for admission; in cases where the undergraduate degree is not in the same area planned for graduate study, the student must demonstrate a level of achievement fully equivalent to the Bachelor of Music degree in the graduate field concerned. In addition, applicants for master's degree programs must: 1) fulfill University-wide admission requirements; and 2) meet College of Music requirements for specific degree programs. These may include auditions, interviews, Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores, letters of recommendation, writing samples, or the submission of composition scores. Applicants for doctoral programs may be required to pass a diagnostic examination for admission to advanced study in the field concerned, usually during the first semester in residence. Remedial coursework may also be required of a student, as determined by area faculty and placement examinations.

Master of Arts (MA) Degree

This degree offers advanced graduate instruction to students and professionals for whom the MM and MME degrees are neither appropriate nor desired. The required and related course content is covered in four course areas that comprise the core of all graduate music curriculum. These courses are: Music Bibliography (MUS 5711; two credits); Applied Music or Music Ensemble (MVX 535X or MUN 5XXX; two credits); Music Theory (MUT 5XXX; three credits); and Music History (MUH 5XXX; three credits). The degree requires a culminating project, and MA Music students select either a thesis (MUS 59XX; six credits) or final project (MUS 59XX; three credits).

Master of Arts (MA) Degree in Arts Administration

This degree is offered to candidates in preparation for roles as leaders in designing, implementing, and managing arts activities. The requirements include ten semester hours in music core courses, thirteen semester hours in arts administration core courses, seven semester hours in appropriate electives, and six semester hours in an arts administration internship in music.

Master of Music (MM) in Performance

Voice

Twelve semester hours in applied music, including recital; two semester hours in ensemble; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and music theory; and ten semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Electives must include four hours of voice/opera literature other than MUL 5620/21. MUO 5505 (Opera Workshop) may count for no more than four hours. Electives may include MUL 5620/21 (one credit each). Electives may NOT include applied music, ensemble, diction, or language.

Organ

Twelve semester hours in applied music, including recital; two semester hours in ensemble; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and music theory; three semester hours in organ pedagogy; and seven semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Strings

Twenty semester hours in applied music, including recital; two semester hours in ensemble; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and music theory; and four semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Harp

Sixteen semester hours in applied music, including recital; four semester hours in ensemble; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and music theory; one semester hour in harp pedagogy; and four semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Piano

Sixteen semester hours in applied music, including recital; eight semester hours in solo piano literature; two semester hours in ensemble; two semester hours in music bibliography; and six semester hours in music history and music theory.

Accompanying

Nineteen semester hours in applied music, including recitals; six semester hours in vocal or instrumental literature; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and music theory; and three semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Piano Pedagogy

Sixteen semester hours in applied music, including recital, practicum, and a research project; six semester hours in advanced piano pedagogy; two semester hours in keyboard literature; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and theory; and two semester hours in music electives.

Woodwinds, Brass, and Percussion

Twelve semester hours in applied music, including recital; two semester hours in ensemble; six semester hours in wind pedagogy and wind literature; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in music history and music theory; and four semester hours in music or non-music electives.

Choral Conducting

Fifteen semester hours in choral literature, advanced choral techniques, choral and orchestral conducting, and choral conducting project recital; three semester hours of applied music; two semester hours in ensemble; two semester hours in music bibliography or appropriate substitute; six semester hours in music history and music theory; and four semester hours in music or non-music electives.

Instrumental Conducting

Eight to ten semester hours in wind ensemble/band or orchestral conducting and recitals; six semester hours in music literature; twelve semester hours in music history and music theory; four semester hours in applied music; two semester hours in music bibliography or appropriate substitute; zero to one semester hours in ensemble; and two to four semester hours in music electives.

Jazz

Twenty semester hours in jazz studies, including jazz history, commercial music, contemporary media, jazz theory/arranging, jazz ensemble techniques, jazz improvisation, jazz ensembles, and jazz recital; three semester hours in college teaching in higher education; four semester hours in applied music; two semester hours in music bibliography; three semester hours in music theory; and three semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Master of Music (MM) in Theory

Thesis Track

Eighteen semester hours in music theory, consisting of three hours in readings in contemporary theory and analysis or in history of music theory, three hours in pedagogy of music theory, three hours of contrapuntal genres or of sixteenth-century counterpoint/fugue, three hours of introduction to Schenkerian analysis, and three hours of atonal analysis; three semester hours in music history; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in thesis; and five semester hours in non-theory electives. Reading proficiency in German must be demonstrated by examination. The degree will be awarded upon completion of a written and oral comprehensive examination and defense of thesis.

Non-Thesis Track

Eighteen semester hours in music theory, consisting of three hours in readings in contemporary theory and analysis or three hours in history of music theory, three hours in pedagogy of music theory, three hours of contrapuntal genres or three hours in sixteenth-century counterpoint/fugue, three hours of introduction to Schenkerian analysis, and three hours of atonal analysis; three semester hours in music history; two semester hours in music bibliography; six semester hours in composition or theory electives; five semester hours in non-theory electives; and two semester hours in other music and/or non-music electives. Reading proficiency in German must be demonstrated by examination. The degree will be awarded upon completion of a written and oral comprehensive examination and completion of all required coursework.

Master of Music (MM) in Composition

Six semester hours in composition, three semester hours in advanced orchestration; three semester hours in pedagogy of music theory; three semesters in digital music synthesis; three semester hours of music history; six semester hours in thesis; two semester hours in music bibliography; and five semester hours in a music or non-music elective. The degree will be awarded upon completion of a thirty-minute chamber recital of new works, a written and oral comprehensive examination, and defense of thesis.

Master of Music (MM) in Musicology

The Master of Music degree in musicology has two emphases: historical musicology or ethnomusicology.

Historical Musicology

Two semester hours in music bibliography; three semester hours in introduction to historical musicology; three semester hours in seminar in historical musicology; nine semester hours in world music cultures and music history period courses; zero to three semester hours in ensembles; three semester hours in introduction to ethnomusicology; three semester hours in seminar in world music cultures; three semester hours in music theory; and six semester hours in thesis.

Ethnomusicology

Three semester hours in introduction to ethnomusicology; three semester hours in seminar in ethnomusicology; three semester hours in seminar in field and laboratory techniques in ethnomusicology; three semester hours in seminar in world music cultures; three semester hours in introduction to historical musicology; two semester hours in music bibliography; three semester hours in an elective anthropology course (approved by the student's advisor); six semester hours in thesis; zero to three semester hours in world music ensembles; and six semester hours of music history or area course electives (approved by the student's advisor).

All musicology candidates will be required to develop a reading knowledge of German or French (or, with the advisor's approval, a working knowledge in a language related to the candidate's thesis area).

Master of Music (MM) in Opera Production

Coaching Track

Sixteen semester hours in applied music; six semester hours in opera literature; three semester hours of an opera coaching project; two semester hours of music bibliography; three semester hours of music history; three semester hours of music theory; and three semester hours of electives.

Directing Track

Thirteen semester hours in opera courses, including opera production, opera directing, and opera literature; six semester hours chosen from music history, music theory, history of theater, history of art, or history of literature; two semester hours in music bibliography; three semester hours in stage/light/costume electives; three semester hours in an opera directing project; and eight semester hours in music or non-music electives.

Master of Music (MM) in Therapy

The graduate degree in music therapy requires a minimum of sixteen semester hours in music therapy and related courses in music and allows for cognate studies in fields such as psychology, sociology, criminology, and habilitative sciences. Programs are planned individually with each student, following examinations that assess training, experience, and career objectives.

Thesis Track

The Master of Music degree in music therapy may be awarded upon completion of a minimum of thirty semester hours of approved graduate coursework with an acceptable grade point average (GPA) and successful completion of a thesis and master's thesis defense.

Non-Thesis Track

The Master of Music degree in music therapy may be awarded, without a thesis, upon completion of a minimum of thirty-six semester hours of approved graduate coursework with an acceptable GPA and successful completion of graduate clinical practicum and master's comprehensive examination.

Master of Music Education (MME)

Thesis Track

Fifteen semester hours in music education, including seminar and thesis; six semester hours in music theory and music history; two semester hours in music bibliography or an appropriate substitute; two semester hours in applied music; and eleven semester hours in music and/or non-music electives.

Non-Thesis Track

A candidate for the Master of Music Education degree, with the approval of the major professor, may elect a non-thesis plan which requires a minimum of thirty-six semester hours of coursework, including the above courses (excluding the thesis) and a three-hour directed individual study project under the direction of the major professor.

The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Degree

Music Education

Offered to candidates who pursue the course of study with distinction and who show ability to do research and scholarly study.

Seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree) is the minimum requirement for graduation, excluding credit earned in dissertation. At least twenty semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree must be in music education. Nine semester hours each must be taken in two of the following areas: musicology, theory, education, psychology, composition, performance, or related fields.

The PhD degree in music education is also available with an emphasis in music therapy. That emphasis requires seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree) as the minimum requirement for graduation, excluding credit earned in dissertation. At least thirty semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree must be in music therapy and music education. Nine semester hours each must be taken in two of the following areas: musicology, composition, theory, computers in music, education, psychology, or related fields. In addition to general admission requirements, acceptance to the program is based on l) two years of experience beyond the master's degree as a certified/registered music therapist, and 2) a diagnostic examination assessing the applicant's ability for advanced work in the field.

Music Theory

Offered to applicants who demonstrate superior musicianship and scholarship. In addition to the admission requirements, acceptance to the program is based on: l) a recognized Bachelor of Music degree or its equivalent, including two years of a foreign language; 2) the graduate music classification examination in music theory, music history, and applied music; and 3) a diagnostic examination which will further assess the applicant's qualifications for advanced work in the field.

A minimum of seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree), excluding credit earned in dissertation, is required. This will include six semester hours in a doctoral seminar in music theory, three semester hours in advanced Schenkerian analysis, three semester hours in an advanced musicology or music education seminar, twenty-two semester hours in music or non-music electives, and six semester hours in a cognate field outside music. All requirements for the Master of Music degree in music theory are considered prerequisite to taking the doctoral diagnostic examination. Reading proficiency in a foreign language in addition to German must be demonstrated by examination. The degree will be awarded upon completion of a written and oral preliminary examination and defense of dissertation.

Musicology

Offered to applicants who demonstrate superior musicianship and scholarship. Emphases in historical musicology or ethnomusicology may be pursued within the major.

A minimum of seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree), excluding credit earned in dissertation, is required. This will include twelve semester hours in advanced seminars in musicology. All requirements for the Master of Music degree in musicology are considered prerequisite to taking the doctoral diagnostic examination. A reading knowledge of French and German, or other languages pertaining to the area of specialization, is required.

The Doctor of Music (DM) Degree

Composition

Offered to candidates who have achieved distinction in composition and who demonstrate ability to do research and scholarly study.

A minimum of seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree), excluding credit earned in dissertation, is required. All requirements for the Master of Music degree in composition are considered prerequisite to taking the doctoral preliminary examination.

  1. Twelve semester hours in composition; six semester hours in writing skills (sixteenth-century counterpoint and fugue); two semester hours of conducting; and twenty semester hours of electives are required.
  2. A public recital of chamber works and a reading or a performance of the dissertation (a major work) are required.
  3. The degree will be awarded upon completion of a written and oral preliminary examination and defense of dissertation. In exception to University-wide regulations, it is not mandatory to complete the preliminary examination or to file a prospectus six months prior to graduation.

Performance

Offered to candidates who have achieved distinction in public performance and who demonstrate ability to do research and scholarly study. At least seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree, (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree) is the minimum requirement, excluding a minimum of twenty-four semester hours credit earned in recitals and research treatise.

The following are concentrations under the Doctor of Music Degree in Performance. For all concentrations, a minimum of seventy semester hours beyond the baccalaureate degree (forty semester hours beyond the master's degree), excluding credit earned for recitals and research treatise, is required.

Piano, Violin, Viola, Violoncello, Double Bass, or Guitar Majors

  1. Thirty semester hours will be in the field of major concentration, including ensemble.
  2. Of the remaining forty semester hours, one area of not fewer than six semester hours is required in music history or music theory/composition; two semester hours in music bibliography; and thirty-two semester hours of electives, of which at least twenty-four semester hours must be in music electives.

Piano Performance Majors (Accompanying/Chamber Music Emphasis)

  1. Thirty semester hours will be in the field of major concentration, including techniques of coaching for chamber music, opera, and voice; continuo playing; harpsichord; and ensemble.
  2. Of the remaining forty semester hours, one area of not fewer than six semester hours is required in music history or music theory/composition; two hours in music bibliography; twelve hours in vocal and chamber music literature; and eighteen hours in electives, of which at least twelve hours must be in music electives.

Voice Performance Majors

  1. Thirty semester hours will be in the field of major concentration, including recital and repertoire coaching, and ensemble.
  2. Of the remaining forty semester hours, one area of not fewer than six semester hours is required in music history or music theory/composition; two semester hours in music bibliography; and thirty-two semester hours of electives, of which at least twenty-four semester hours must be in music electives.

Woodwind, Brass, or Percussion Majors

  1. Thirty semester hours will be in the field of major concentration, including ensemble, and including not less than six semester hours in wind and percussion pedagogy and wind and percussion literature.
  2. Of the remaining forty semester hours, one area of not fewer than six semester hours is required in music history or music theory/composition; two semester hours in music bibliography; and thirty-two semester hours of electives, of which at least twenty-four semester hours must be in music electives.

Organ

  1. Thirty semester hours will be in the field of major concentration, including ensemble, continuo playing, applied harpsichord, and literature/repertoire courses.
  2. Of the remaining forty semester hours, six semester hours are required in music history, music theory, and/or composition; two semester hours in music bibliography; and thirty-two semester hours of electives, of which at least twenty-four semester hours must be in music electives.

All Performance Majors

  1. Performance and research requirements consist of two one-hour public recitals, one studio recital or lecture/demonstration, one performance of operatic role (voice majors only), and three chamber works (on the same or different program). Students are also required to write a research treatise on a subject related to their major field. For voice performance majors with an opera emphasis, the requirements are one public recital, two major opera roles, and one lecture recital/project. Opera emphasis students should consult with their major professor regarding the treatise or non-treatise track. For voice performance majors with a pedagogy emphasis, the requirements are one public recital, one lecture recital, one chamber works recital, an extended research treatise on a subject related to pedagogy, advanced foreign language study, and an expanded comprehensive examination which includes voice teaching. For piano performance majors with an accompanying/chamber music emphasis, the requirements are two vocal accompanying recitals, two instrumental chamber music recitals, lecture recital, and the research treatise.
    • The treatise is a formal, scholarly, written document incorporating original research conducted by the student. A prospectus should be submitted to and approved by the supervisory committee in advance (usually done at the preliminary examination). With regards to the treatise, DM students may select one of two approaches:
      • Option 1. The student completes an original research document consisting of a minimum of 12,000 words (not including supplementary matter such as title page, table of contents, lists of figures, bibliography and appendices).
      • Option 2. The student completes an original research document consisting of a minimum of 6,000 words (not including supplementary matter such as title page, table of contents, lists of figures, bibliography and appendices). In addition, the student performs an additional Lecture Recital (MV_ 6987) for 1 to 4 credits. Typically, this second lecture recital is related to the content of the written document.
      • Note:
        1. All treatise submission requirements of the FSU Graduate School and all University deadlines are applicable to both of the options above.
        2. Following submission of the completed treatise to the supervisory committee, an oral defense with the committee is required. The treatise defense is normally held after completion of all recitals and submission of the treatise to the advisory committee. Students must register for MUS 8985 Treatise Defense during the semester in which the defense is conducted (normally the semester of graduation).
        3. Guidelines for selection of music for lecture recitals are determined by each area or the supervisory committee. Guidelines may include consideration of genre and historical periods or other aspects an area might determine.
  2. The preliminary examination is administered under University-wide regulations and must be completed at least six months prior to graduation.
  3. The dissertation requirement is satisfied by registration for the recitals and the research treatise. The examination in defense of dissertation is satisfied by the examinations administered prior to recitals and by the defense of research treatise.

Examination in Defense of Dissertation and Treatise

The defense of the dissertation/treatise will be oral. Responsibility for suggesting the time, designating the place, and presiding at the examination rests with the major professor. It is recommended that students defend no later than the eighth week of classes in the semester of intent to graduate. Students must defend by no later than the Format Approval Deadline in the semester of intent to graduate. Consult the Graduate School Canvas site for more information as format approval deadlines may change somewhat depending on the year.

Academic courtesy requires that the dissertation/treatise be submitted to each member of the supervisory committee at least four weeks before the date of the oral examination. The supervisory committee, the chair of the major department, and such other members of the faculty as may be appointed by the academic dean will conduct the examination. All members of the graduate faculty are invited to attend. At least two weeks prior to the date of the examination, the student or major professor will present an announcement of the dissertation/treatise title and the date and place of the examination to the Graduate School. Consult the Registration Guide for the deadline dates.

All committee members and the student must attend the entire defense in real time, either by being physically present or participating via distance technology (e.g., Skype or Zoom). If exceptional emergency circumstances, (e.g., medical or other emergency situations), prevent the participation of a committee member, then it may be necessary to arrange for an additional appropriately qualified colleague to attend the defense. A minimum of four members with Graduate Faculty Status must participate. The oral examining committee will certify in writing to the academic dean of the major department the results of the examination: passed, failed, or to be reexamined. The report of results following a reexamination must indicate the student either passed or failed. To receive a passing grade, the written dissertation/treatise must be in final form or require only minor revisions at the time of the defense. A grade of PASS for the defense of treatise or dissertation requires at least a majority approval of the committee, and the committee must sign the Doctoral Exam Form for the College of Music file. In addition, if the student passes, each member must sign the Manuscript Signature Form to substantiate the results of the defense. It is the responsibility of the major professor to submit this completed form either directly to the clearance advisor or to the appropriate college or departmental office for subsequent delivery to the clearance advisor in the Graduate School. A written critique of the conduct of the examination in defense of the dissertation/treatise should be submitted by the university representative from the graduate faculty to the College of Music academic dean and the dean of the Graduate School within one week after the date of defense. The degree cannot be awarded until both forms have been received by the Graduate School and the final version of the manuscript has been submitted to and approved by the clearance advisor.

The final version of the dissertation/treatise that is approved by the supervisory committee must be submitted electronically to the university manuscript clearance advisor in the Graduate School within sixty days of the defense date or the student must re-defend. A manuscript processing fee is charged.